constitutional Amendmentconstitutional Amendment

A constitutional amendment is a process of making changes to the Constitution. Article 368 in Part XX of the constitution provides amending powers to the parliament. 

Significant Constitutional Amendment

The Indian constitution is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. There are some basic tenets that have guided the past generation, guiding our generation, and will guide the generations to come.
However, our constitution-makers were aware of the fact that social life is dynamic, and hence the constitution should have space to accommodate new needs. The parliament can amend any part of the constitution including fundamental rights.

Major Constitutional Amendment

Fiftieth Amendment Act, 1984

Empowered the Parliament to restrict the Fundamental Rights of persons employed in intelligence organizations and telecommunication systems set up for the armed forces or intelligence organizations.

Fifty-Second Amendment Act, 1985

To stop defection and the politics of ‘Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram’

Provided for disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection and added a new Tenth Schedule containing the details in this regard.

Fifty Eighth Amendment Act, 1987

Provided an authoritative text of the Constitution in the Hindi language and gave the same legal sanctity to the Hindi version of the Constitution.

Sixty-First Amendment Act, 1989

Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly elections.

Sixty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1990

Provided for the establishment of a multi-member National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the place of a Special Officer for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

Sixty-Ninth Amendment Act, 1991

Accorded a special status to the Union Territory of Delhi by designing it as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The amendment also provided for the creation of a 70-member legislative assembly and a 7-member council of ministers for Delhi.

Seventy-First Amendment Act, 1992

Included Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali languages in the Eighth Schedule. With this, the total number of scheduled languages increased to 18.

Seventy-Third Amendment Act 1992

Provided constitutional status for the Panchayati Raj institutions.
Added Part-IX and 11th Schedule

Seventy-fourth Amendment Act 1992

Provided constitutional status for the Urban local bodies.
Part IX-A and the 12th Schedule were added.

Seventy Seventh Amendment Act, 1995

Provided for reservation in promotions in government jobs for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This amendment nullified the Supreme Court ruling with regard to reservation in promotions.

Eighty Fourth Amendment Act, 2001

Extended the ban on the readjustment of seats in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for another 25 years (i.e., up to 2026) with the same objective of encouraging population-limiting measures. In other words, the number of seats in the Lok Sabha and the assemblies is to remain the same till 2026. It also provided for the readjustment and rationalization of territorial constituencies in the states on the basis of the population figures of the 1991 census.

Eighty-sixth Amendment Act 2002

Provided the Right to Education as a fundamental right (part III of the Constitution).
The new article inserted Article 21A which made free and compulsory education for children between 6-14 years.
Added a new Fundamental Duty under Article 51 A.

Eighty-eighth Amendment Act 2003

Provided Service Tax under Article 268-A – which was levied by Union and collected and appropriated by the Union as well as the States.

Eighty Ninth Amendment Act, 2003

Bifurcated the erstwhile combined National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes into two separate bodies, namely, National Commission for Scheduled Castes (Article 338) and National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (Article 338-A).

Ninety-second Amendment Act 2003

Added Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Maithili, and Santhali in the Eighth schedule

Ninety-fifth Amendment Act 2009

Provided for the extended reservation for the SCs and STs and special representation to the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for ten more years (Article 334).

Ninety-seventh Amendment Act 2011

Part IX-B added to the constitution for cooperative societies and made it a constitutional right.
The right to form cooperative societies became a fundamental right under Article 19.
Article 43-B was inserted as a DPSP to promote cooperative societies.

101st Amendment Act, 2016

Provided for Goods and Service Tax (GST).

102nd Amendment Act, 2018

The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) became a constitutional body.

103rd Amendment Act, 2019

It introduced reservations for Economic Weaker Section for the first time in independent India
Amendment in Article 16 allows a 10% reservation to EWS in public employment. (clauses (4) and (5) of Article 15)

104th Amendment Act, 2020

Changed the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty.
Ended the reservation of seats for the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.

Also, Read This: Constitutional Amendment Part – 1 Part-1


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