Knowing where green hydrogen comes from is essential before talking about green hydrogen in India. Currently, it is primarily produced industrially using natural gas, which produces large volumes of carbon dioxide. This hydrogen is referred to as “grey.” A cleaner version of hydrogen is “blue” hydrogen, which captures and uses carbon emissions. Green hydrogen, which is created from renewable energy sources without releasing any carbon emissions, is the cleanest of all.
Some of the Climate and Energy Target set by India
India joined an exclusive group of fewer than 60 nations by presenting their long-term low-emission development strategy at the COP 27 UN climate meeting in Egypt, which focuses on climate justice, sustainable lifestyles, and equity. India’s green hydrogen industry has a key role to play in meeting the goal.
India committed to generating 40% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030 as part of the 2015 Paris Agreement.
The IEA estimates that India is currently the fourth-largest energy consumer in the world (after China, the US, and the EU) and that it will soon overtake the EU to take the top spot. India will be the third-largest energy consumer in the world by 2030.
By 2030, 20% ethanol in gasoline and 5% biodiesel in diesel are the targets outlined in the new National Policy on Biofuels.
By 2030, it must cut its “emissions intensity,” or emissions per unit of GDP, by 45% from 2005 levels.
At COP 26 in Glasgow, the Indian Prime Minister declared that his country would have 500 GW of non-fossil fuel-based energy capacity by 2030.
By 2070, India wants to be NetZero Emission.
Prospects of the Green Hydrogen industry
Precedence Research, a market research company, projects that the global market for green hydrogen, which had a value of $1.83 billion in 2021, will reach more than $89.18 billion by 2030, growing at a compound annual growth rate of up to 54% between 2021 and 2030.
The Asia-Pacific region is the green hydrogen market’s fastest-growing region.
Cost of production of Green Hydrogen in India
In comparison to hydrogen produced from fossil fuels, which costs $1.80 per kilogram, hydrogen produced from renewable resources ranges in price from $3 to $6.55 per kilogram.
In India, the cost of producing green hydrogen is about Rs 500 per kilogram.
The government aims to reduce the cost of creating green hydrogen by 40–50% through regulatory efforts.
Benefits of Green Hydrogen in India
With about 138 crores (2020) inhabitants, India is one of the most populous nations in the world. Renewable energy sources, however, are crucial to India’s future energy security due to the nation’s vast population and expanding energy needs. A significant part of India’s energy future can be played by hydrogen, a clean, renewable energy source.
India might gain a lot from hydrogen, such as lowering greenhouse gas emissions and giving rural areas access to clean energy.
to increase domestic green hydrogen generation to 5 million tonnes by 2030 while lowering carbon emissions. The National Green Hydrogen Mission and the green hydrogen/ammonia policy were announced by India.
The first element in the periodic table. It is a colorless, flavorless, and odorless gas produced by diatomic molecules, H2, under normal conditions.
One electron and a nucleus with one unit of positive charge make up the hydrogen atom, represented by the symbol H. It has an atomic weight of 1,00797 g/mol and the atomic number 1.
It is one of the essential ingredients of all biological substances and is present not only on Earth but also across the entire cosmos.
There are three hydrogen isotopes:
- Protium, mass 1, which makes up more than 99,985 per cent of the natural element;
- Deuterium, mass 2, which makes up approximately 0.015 per cent of the natural element;
- Tritium, mass 3, appears in small quantities in nature but can be produced artificially through various nuclear reactions.
Uses of Hydrogen
The creation of ammonia is hydrogen’s most important application. Hydrogen is increasingly being used in fuel refinement processes including hydrocracking and sulphur removal. The catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated vegetable oils to create solid fat makes considerable use of hydrogen. The process of hydrogenation is used to make organic compounds. Huge quantities of hydrogen are employed as nuclear-powered rocket propellants as well as rocket fuels in combination with oxygen.
In contrast to hydrocarbons, which have a net carbon content in the range of 75–85 per cent, hydrogen is emerging as a significant source of energy because it contains no carbon and is a non-polluting energy source. Its energy content is the highest in terms of weight and the lowest in terms of volume. As per International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Hydrogen shall make up six percent of total energy consumption by 2050.
Grey Hydrogen, Blue Hydrogen, and Green Hydrogen
The majority of hydrogen is used in the petrochemical and fertiliser sectors, and it is often produced from natural gas, which releases enormous amounts of carbon dioxide. Based on the method of extraction, hydrogen is divided into three groups: grey, blue, and green. Due to its zero carbon emissions and use of carbon offset technology, green and blue hydrogen generation is receiving more attention.
- When hydrogen is ignited, it produces simply water. However, creating it can be carbon-intensive.
- Scientists allocate colors based on the technique of hydrogen creation.
- Depending on the manner of generation, hydrogen can be grey, blue, or green – and occasionally pink, yellow, or turquoise.
- Green hydrogen is the only form that is created in an environmentally friendly manner.
- It might be critical in worldwide efforts to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.
Types of hydrogen fuel
Energy is needed to create molecular hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen can be classified as grey hydrogen, blue hydrogen, or green hydrogen depending on the energy source and production method used to make it. Natural gas, coal, or biomass can all be used to make hydrogen, but they all release greenhouse gases. Water is split into oxygen and hydrogen via an electrolysis process; this created hydrogen is known as green hydrogen.
Black, Brown, and Grey hydrogen
Grey hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas. Approximately 95% of the hydrogen produced in the world today is grey hydrogen. The two main methods of production are coal gasification and steam methane reforming. By both of these processes, carbon dioxide is created (CO2). Grey hydrogen is the term for the hydrogen that results when carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. Grey hydrogen does not have any emissions.
- Grey hydrogen is the most prevalent kind and is produced from natural gas, or methane, by a process known as “steam reforming.”
- This technology emits fewer pollutants than black or brown hydrogen, which employs black (bituminous) or brown (lignite) coal in the hydrogen-production process.
- Because the CO2 and carbon monoxide produced during the process are not collected, black or brown hydrogen is the most environmentally damaging.
Similar to grey hydrogen, blue hydrogen is sequestered (stored in the Earth) through carbon capture and storage, which accounts for the majority of CO2 emissions (CCS). Since blue hydrogen absorbs and stores carbon dioxide rather than releasing it into the atmosphere, it is a low-carbon fuel. Steam methane reforming and coal gasification, both of which incorporate carbon capture and storage, are the two main production processes. Grey hydrogen is less environmentally friendly than blue hydrogen, but because carbon capture technology is used, blue hydrogen is more expensive.
- When carbon from steam reforming is collected and stored underground using industrial carbon capture and storage, hydrogen is labeled blue.
- Because the emissions are not diffused in the atmosphere, blue hydrogen is sometimes referred to as carbon neutral.
- However, 10-20% of the carbon produced cannot be captured.
Green hydrogen is produced with the use of energy derived from sustainable resources. Since green hydrogen is produced utilising renewable energy sources like the sun and wind, which don’t produce greenhouse gases, it is regarded as low- or zero-emission hydrogen. Green hydrogen is created when water (H2O) is split into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). Electrolysis, often known as water splitting, calls for the application of energy. Although the method of using energy to split water is expensive, it is far more environmentally benign than producing grey hydrogen.
Green Hydrogen in India
Currently, it accounts for less than 0.1% of all hydrogen production. India has been preparing to transition to a green hydrogen economy in order to lower emissions and achieve global climate targets. The nation has already made some progress in this regard, establishing a national hydrogen policy and starting a number of experimental projects.
The deployment of 175 GW of renewable energy is the ambitious goal that the Indian government has set for itself by 2022. While solar and wind energy will contribute significantly to this, there is also a plan to utilise hydrogen as a storage medium to help smooth out variations in renewable energy output.
Other colors of Hydrogen
Turquoise hydrogen: Turquoise hydrogen is created by pyrolyzing methane, which also yields solid carbon. There is no requirement for CCS, and the carbon can be utilised in other processes, such as tyre production or soil enhancement.
Pink Hydrogen: Similar to how green hydrogen is created by the electrolysis of water, pink hydrogen is produced using nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources.
Yellow Hydrogen: When hydrogen is created by water electrolysis using solar energy, it is referred to as yellow hydrogen. Depending on what is available, it may also refer to hydrogen created by the electrolysis of water utilising a variety of sources.
Current status of Hydrogen production
The majority of the black hydrogen produced worldwide today is created using natural gas.
While grey hydrogen has a small global market share, it is also produced with low-carbon technologies.
By 2030, India wants to have produced 5 million tonnes of renewable hydrogen.
The government anticipates adding 175 GW of green, hydrogen-based electricity over the ensuing ten years.
Policy for Green Hydrogen in India
- In 2021, the Green Hydrogen Mission was launched, with the goal of making India the Green Hydrogen hub.
- The central government has set a target of 25 million tonnes of yearly manufacturing capacity by 2047.
National Hydrogen Energy Mission
India’s National Hydrogen Mission was officially inaugurated on August 15, 2021, the country’s 75th Independence Day. The Mission’s objective is to help the government achieve its climate goals and transform India into a hub for green hydrogen. This will support the development of renewable energy resources and the target of producing 5 million tonnes of green hydrogen by 2030.
- This Mission will emphasize Hydrogen from clean sources.
- Additionally, it intends to link the hydrogen economy to the rising generation of renewable energy in the nation. The 175 GW renewable energy output target for India is 2022, and this Mission is expected to hasten that aim. Utilizing hydrogen would lessen India’s dependency on imported fossil fuels while also assisting it in meeting its emission commitments under the Paris Agreement.
- End consumers of hydrogen energy include the transportation, chemical, and steel industries. Because they consume fossil fuels, these industries account for one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with Hydrogen in these industries will significantly cut GHG emissions.
Green Hydrogen/Green Ammonia Policy 2022
The policy key points are as follows :
- The Green Hydrogen/Green Ammonia Policy offers free transmission for 25 years.
- It focuses on inter-State transmission connectivity.
- The Green Hydrogen/Green Ammonia Policy, Plans to set up zones to manufacture green Hydrogen and ammonia.
- Land for storage purposes will be provided by the port authorities at applicable rates.
- The government is planning to require that industries that use a lot of Hydrogen and ammonia, like oil refining, fertiliser, and steel, use green Hydrogen for a certain amount of their needs.
NITI AAYOG report, ‘Harnessing Green Hydrogen – opportunities for deep decarbonisation in India’ 2022
Key Observations of the Report
- Demand: India’s demand for hydrogen could increase by more than four times by 2050, making up almost 10 percent of the world’s total demand.
- Decarbonizing the industrial sector: Green hydrogen is important for decarbonizing sectors that are hard to change, like fertilisers, refining, methanol, maritime shipping, iron and steel, and transportation.
- By 2050, green hydrogen can reduce CO2 emissions by 3.6 gigatons.
- Manufacturing and exports: A globally competitive green hydrogen industry could lead to export markets of green hydrogen and hydrogen-embedded low-carbon products like green ammonia and green steel, unlocking 95 GW of electrolysis capacity in the country by 2030.
Green Hydrogen in India is a promising technology that can help India achieve its goal of becoming a low-carbon economy. There are many potential applications for this technology, and the country is well-positioned to take advantage of it. India should continue to invest in research and development for green Hydrogen and work with other countries to promote its use.